Accountability is the obligation of an organization or individual to account for activities and accept blame for failures. Engagement. Accountability is all the rage these days. Administrators and researchers coordinating these efforts within universities have collectively organized into multiple professional fields that advance “best practices” within their respective areas (Banta, Lund, Black, & Oblander, CORRESPONDENCE Em mechanisms are covered in 3 broad types of accountability: Performance accountability, regulatory accountability, and market accountability. Measures of accountability can increase or decrease the achievement gap; it is all in the application. Accountability for students’ test scores has become the cornerstone of education policy in the United States. State policies that rewarded or punished schools and their staffs for test scores became commonplace in the 1990s. is that universities annually collect multiple types of data at multiple levels in the organization to satisfy multiple regulatory agencies. The concept of accountability has evolved over time. ... School administrators demonstrate accountability to higher-level education and political authorities, who delegate responsibility to them to provide instruction. A person who is accountable may be called upon to answer and account for outcomes. The federal government was not involved. The following are illustrative examples of accountability. The salacious tales of Bernie Madoff, John Edwards, and Anthony Weiner all bring cries for greater accountability in business and government. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act federalized this approach and made it in some respects more draconian. Different types of accountability systems may be found in education. Throughout the 90s states strived to get these three things right. For instance Anderson (2005) distinguishes between the following three main types, namely (1) detailed institutional regulation of educational activities and compliance to this; (2) acknowledgement of professional norms and adherence to these and (3) specification of expected results and evaluation of performance. The Impact of Increasing Education Inputs in Low Accountability Contexts Classroom Inputs Despite the increases in education investment, many classrooms in devel-oping countries continue to face real resource constraints. Teacher education can support teachers’ engagement with assessment data to inform classroom teaching and learning. This is good. An education accountability system requires three things, 1) a clearly defined set of standards, 2) valid and reliable tests that measure how well the standards are met, and 3) an effective plan to improve schools that fall short. Accountability should have a transparent performance assessment criteria. Everywhere you turn, in both the public and the press, people are asking for greater accountability.

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