*Negative values indicate carbon sequestration. NUS chemists have developed a highly efficient nanostructured catalyst based on zinc and silver that can convert carbon dioxide, an environmental pollutant and greenhouse gas, to … Therefore, AVERT provides a national marginal emission factor for the Equivalencies Calculator. (2016). -0.21 metric ton C/acre/year* × (44 units CO2/12 units C) = -0.77 metric ton CO2/acre/year sequestered annually by one acre of average U.S. forest. Waste Reduction Model (WARM), Version 15. Carbon sequestration is dependent on growth rate, which varies by location and other conditions. In order to overcome the climate crisis, two measures are required: The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and removal of CO2 from the earth … Fuel oil: 29.3 gallons per home × 1/42 barrels/gallon × 429.61 kg CO2/barrel × 1/1,000 kg/metric ton = 0.30 metric tons CO2/home. Room temperature conversion of CO2 to CO: A new way to synthesize hydrocarbons: New method could potentially reduce dioxide emission into the atmosphere and slash costs of chemical manufacturing. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted per gallon of motor gasoline burned is 8.89 × 10-3 metric tons, as calculated in the “Gallons of gasoline consumed” section above. The annual change in emissions from one hectare of drained organic soils can be calculated as the difference between the emission factors for forest soils and cropland soils. This includes the amount of energy needed to charge a fully depleted smartphone battery and maintain that full charge throughout the day. Total home electricity, natural gas, distillate fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas consumption figures were converted from their various units to metric tons of CO2 and added together to obtain total CO2 emissions per home. Carbon dioxide emissions per barrel of crude oil are determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). The national average carbon dioxide output rate for electricity generated in 2016 was 998.4 lbs CO2 per megawatt-hour (EPA 2018), which translates to about 1,072.1 lbs CO2 per megawatt-hour for delivered electricity, assuming transmission and distribution losses of 6.9% (EIA 2019b; EPA 2018).1. A narrow beam, about a nanometer in diameter, bombarded individual aluminum nanoparticles while a beam about a thousand times wider generated LSPs among a large set of the nanoparticles. This value assumes that all the carbon in the diesel is converted to CO2 (IPCC 2006). Carbon dioxide emissions avoided per year per wind turbine installed were determined by multiplying the average electricity generated per wind turbine in a year by the annual wind national marginal emission rate (EPA 2019). The amount of waste in an average garbage truck was assumed to be 7 tons (EPA 2002). Effects of the CO 2 /H 2 feed ratio on CO 2 conversion (X CO2), H 2 conversion (X H2) and selectivity to CO (S CO), and methanol (S MeOH) in CO 2 hydrogenation over the Cu/ZnO/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. For any amount of any gas, it is the amount of CO 2 which would warm the earth as much as that amount of that gas. Note: When using this equivalency, please keep in mind that it represents the CO2 equivalency of CO2 released for natural gas burned as a fuel, not natural gas released to the atmosphere. Although the LSP reaction generates a poisonous gas -- carbon monoxide -- the gas readily combines with hydrogen to produce essential hydrocarbon compounds, such as methane and ethanol, that are often used in industry, said NIST researcher Renu Sharma. . Previous methods of removing carbon dioxide have had limited success because the techniques have required high temperature or pressure, employed costly precious metals, or had poor efficiency. Carbon Stock Density in Year 2017 = (57,546 MMT C × 106) / (273,623 thou. The team triggered the LSP oscillations by exciting the nanoparticles with an electron beam that had an adjustable diameter. Content on this website is for information only. The fraction oxidized is assumed to be 100 percent (IPCC 2006). The change in emissions from drained organic soils per hectare is estimated as the difference between emission factors for drained organic forest soils and drained organic cropland soils. This enabled the team to estimate how much carbon dioxide had been removed. Carbon dioxide emissions per power plant were calculated by dividing the total emissions from power plants whose primary source of fuel was coal by the number of power plants. Carbon dioxide emissions were then divided by the ratio of carbon dioxide emissions to total vehicle greenhouse gas emissions to account for vehicle methane and nitrous oxide emissions. EE and RE programs are not generally assumed to affect baseload power plants that run all the time, but rather marginal power plants that are brought online as necessary to meet demand. Carbon dioxide emissions per pound of coal were determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). Please note the following caveats to these assumptions: To convert to units of metric tons CO2 per tree, multiply by the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12) and the ratio of metric tons per pound (1/2,204.6). McPherson, E. G.; van D. N. S.; Peper, P. J. Hancock, Kathleen and Sreekanth, Ande. 1. United States Environmental Protection Agency, You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. [14.17 Wh – (22 hours x 0.14 Watts)] x 1 kWh/1,000 Wh = 0.011 kWh/smartphone charged, 0.011 kWh/charge x 1,558.8 pounds CO2/MWh delivered electricity x 1 MWh/1,000 kWh x 1 metric ton/2,204.6 lbs = 7.84 x 10-6 metric tons CO2/smartphone charged. ), Annual Net Change in Carbon Stocks in Year 2017 = 57,687 MMT C – 57,546 MMT C = 141 MMT C. Step 2: Determine the annual net change in carbon stocks (i.e., sequestration) per area by dividing the carbon stock change in U.S. forests from Step 1 by the total area of U.S. forests remaining in forests in year t (i.e., the area of land that did not change land-use categories between the time periods). It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice. Maintenance mode power, also known as the power consumed when the phone is fully charged and the charger is still plugged in, is 0.14 Watts (DOE 2019). In 2017, the weighted average combined fuel economy of cars and light trucks was 22.3 miles per gallon (FHWA 2019). 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Based on data developed by the USDA Forest Service for the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2017, the carbon stock density of U.S. forests in 2017 was 210 metric tons of carbon per hectare (or 85 metric tons of carbon per acre) (EPA 2019). This value assumes that all the carbon in the gasoline is converted to CO2 (IPCC 2006). From 2007 to 2017, the average annual sequestration of carbon per area was 0.53 metric tons C/hectare/year (or 0.21 metric tons C/acre/year) in the United States, with a minimum value of 0.49 metric tons C/hectare/year (or 0.20 metric tons C/acre/year) in 2014, and a maximum value of 0.55 metric tons C/hectare/year (or 0.22 metric tons C/acre/year) in 2011. Forest carbon stocks and carbon stock change are based on the stock difference methodology and algorithms described by Smith, Heath, and Nichols (2010). , harvest for the equivalencies calculator in an average garbage truck was assumed to 7! 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